It all started on a summer’s day in 2008. There I was, talking to Prince Charles on his visit to Garden Organic to celebrate their fiftieth anniversary. I was on hand to discuss composting. He is a man who knows about such matters. Slightly surprisingly the conversation turned to hens. He is an enthusiast of them too (who knew?) and the idea of promoting hen-keeping as part of the errrr… ‘battery’ of waste reduction techniques was born.
Chas and Muck discuss hens
Fast forward a year and Margi Lennartson and I were in Flanders with colleagues from Garden Organic and WCC investigating what they do there – the local councils provides households with two free hens and mentoring support to look after them as part of their waste reduction strategy.
It took several more years, some unsuccessful Lottery bids and encouraging notes in the famous scrawly handwriting before, in 2013, success – a small grant to support a Hens@home project. A booklet and a website produced and a series of three training courses for aspiring hen mentors.
It is early April, the road show has arrived in Oxfordshire and I’m on the course at Hill End Outdoor Centre to learn about how to look after hens and impart ‘the knowledge’ to others as a mentor. Led by GO’s Pauline Pears and Ian Farrar from the British Hen Welfare Trust, the group – all experienced hen keepers, enjoyed an ‘Everything you always wanted to know about hens but were afraid to ask’-style day. Well of course we knew it all. Or did we? After the intros, ‘My hen flock is bigger than your hen flock’, ‘But mine has quails’, ‘ I know someone who has ostriches..’ we got onto the ‘simple multiple choice quiz’. Q1. ‘What is a hen’s comb for? (pretty philosophical for anyone who recalls the Falklands War 30 years ago, memorably described as ‘two bald men fighting over a comb’) ‘so it can be seen at a distance’, ‘to help keep it cool in hot weather’ or as a ‘warning to predators’. I think we all got that one (to keep it cool in hot weather) and the group soon moved on to the true/false session. ‘Hens have warm feet’ (true) ‘ A hen can run at 7mph’ (true) ‘Hens are strict vegetarians’ (false).
Then it was the practical bit, holding a real live hen and discussing their illnesses. Like what to do when they are egg-bound – olive oil has something to do with the answer (not quite sure if it had to be ‘extra virgin’). I’ve never come across such easy to handle hens as the ones Ian brought along. I suppose they were just so grateful that they were now ex-battery, or perhaps they knew that bad behaviour could have consequences.
There was a bit of a division in the group between the ‘utilitarians’ and the ‘hens as pets’ brigades. But we all agreed that the eggs can’t be produced for less than you can buy them for in the shops, so even the utilitarians have to recognise that this isn’t a fast way to riches. It certainly isn’t by the time you’ve got through the legal aspects of hen keeping. No kitchen waste (not even vegetarian – this has nothing to do with BSE. EU regs allegedly) and they aren’t even allowed access to your compost heap. Officially. So thanks to DEFRA the whole point of GO’s ‘Hens@home’ programme, which was supposed to provide a cheap and simple way of reducing the amount of kitchen waste going to landfill is undermined at a stroke. Don’t tell his Royal Highness or there will be some more of those tricky letters to Ministers landing on Whitehall desks. Strange when one participant (Lord Muck) had been over to Flanders to see for himself just how their programme works and just how successful it is as a waste reduction strategy. Flanders is erm…. in the EU, so ask DEFRA to clarify that one.
To round off the day we had a long discussion on about ‘end of life’ for hens. Just in case you wondered, none of the options are actually legal either. Euthanasia by vet? No, they can only do that to pets, and hens are ‘farm animals’. Ring its neck yourself and bury it in the garden? No, you can only legally bury your pet. Ditto and send it for incineration? Try and find a waste carrier who will come and pick up one hen. The best we could come up with was cook it and then put it in the food waste collection … but you’ll have to remove the feathers first!
The Oxford Farming Conference (OFC) is a bit of a fixture in the food and farming calendar. The great and the good show up every year. Sometimes (like last year) a former activist does public penance for their past foolishness and bends the knee to the corporate behomoth – as Mark Lynas did, disavowing his activist past with Corporate Watch and announcing his conversion to the cause of GM technology. For the past five years there has been a alternative, the Oxford Real Farming Conference (ORFC), founded by Colin Tudge and his wife Ruth West. The difference could hardly be more stark, one has a ticket price of £375 and is sponsored by Syngenta, McDonalds and a host of other agri-business giants. The other costs £20 and isn’t sponsored by anybody. But they are both in Oxford, on the same days. This helps, as I discovered when I got a call from the Labour Party the weekend before asking for assistance. Huw Irranca-Davies the Shadow Food and Farming Minister was due to pitch up at the OFC and make a speech, but wanted the chance of a different perspective and could I help? Delighted. Suggested a visit to the ORFC. The response was amusing and instructive. Yes, but can it be incognito as they wouldn’t want the NFU to throw a fit (I thought Mrs Thatcher had tamed the power of trade unions decades ago – clearly not in this case….). Now Irranca-Davies turns out not to be a New Labour clone at all. Apart from this rebellious behaviour towards this masters in the NFU, it turns out that his wife’s family (the Irranca’s of his name) are Italian immigrants to the Welsh valleys (he represents the former mining, now rural, constituency of Ogmore in west Wales) who run a small family dairy farm making cheese, mostly a local parmesan and pecorino. So Huw knows a bit about farming and indeed the situation of small rural farms. What to take him to? Why the session on the future of family farms in that home of Welsh exiles in Oxford, Jesus College.
It turned out to be a triumph. The speakers were diverse, thoughtful and amusing and the audience young and scruffy enough to look as if they might even have some connection with family farms. Indeed Anneleise the no 1 Labour candidate in the south east for the forthcoming Euro elections brought along her perfectly behaved 6 month old son Freddy, who was naturally fed only on locally produced milk and ensured the session had the widest age range of any at the conference.
Star performer was a young woman from a family farm in Herefordshire, Becca Watkins. She had a lot of important points to make about generational continuity and it benefits for community solidarity and a sensitivity to landscape bio-diversity that a long term connection to ‘place’ brings, as well as some sharp words about the risks of family inheritance, ranging from a lack of willingness to innovate, to the tensions between generations and the boundaries (or lack of them), between parents/offspring and business partners of different generations. Peppered with jokes and anecdotes of the ‘I know you don’t put jeans in the colours wash, mother’ -type, she painted a vivid picture of life beneath the calm bucolic surface, and revealed to an amazed audience that ‘the Archers’ aren’t real people – though their travails are real enough in rural communities.
Afterwards we repaired to ‘the Mitre’ for tea and a discussion on some of the issues with Joe from Cultivate and Michel from the Centre for Agro-Ecology and Food Security at Coventry University and a photo opp for Annleise with Huw promoting local (ish) south east foods. I never knew politics could be that much fun!
It was a great idea while it lasted. Or was it? Oxford’s People’s Supermarket (TPS) which opened with great fanfare in July 2102 on boho Cowley Road, closed at the end of November. I’m almost embarrassed to say (but several people have recently reminded me) that at the time it opened I forecast it wouldn’t survive to see 2014. Rare indeed is it for my predictions to be so accurate and I’m sorry for those who put so much effort into it.
So what went wrong? The warning signs were there from the very first meting in the Methodist Church Hall on Cowley Road in Spring 21012. The presentation to a large audience was not about the unique offering of the soon-to-open TPS, but on the wickedness of Tesco. The USP was … ‘Tesco is a bad, bad supermarket who rip off their customers and we are going to undercut them and give local people a fair deal’. This didn’t strike me at the time as a credible business plan and I stood up and said so. Interestingly the response was slightly puzzling, and it basically consisted of saying almost the exact opposite, essentially that TPS would provide a unique service of local food, organic fruit and veg, fair trade and ethical stuff (wholefoods and household products) great bread and a wonderful atmosphere, seven days a week right here on Cowley Road. Fair enough, except that actually of all the places on the planet, Cowley Road has all these things in spades already…. Uhuru, the Cultivate VegVan, the East Oxford Farmers Market, SESI, Gibbons Bakery and a myriad of interesting family-run specialist ethnic shops. Ah well the response to my and by now others, questions on this point, they aren’t all in one place and quite a few of them (Cultivate, Farmers Market) are only open one day a week so we are different and unique.
It duly came to pass that TPS opened – but in a way that shocked its potential core customer base. Essentially between the tahini and rice cakes, most of the stock was snickers, crisps and frozen sprouts and cheap chicken from Bookers. So cheap certainly, some of it even competitive with Tesco…shame there were only about a dozen lines at any one time that were cheaper, and that the entire stock line was less than 10% of the Tesco 200m away.
Confusion reigned. Was the TPS really a cheap and cheerful outlet targetted at a customer base that couldn’t afford Tesco prices? Or was it something bit more right-on? The problem with this confusion was that while the right-on market probably would shop there given an appropriate product range, after all good as the farmers market is, its only open on Saturdays, the products on sale were mainly of little interest to that demographic. Meantime the poorer end of the spectrum are people who take their shopping very seriously. They get the cheap offers in Tesco, then head off to the Co-op for theirs, followed by occasional pickings from the aisles of Sainsbury and a long slow perusal of the Asian supermarkets like Tahmid Stores, where in truth the prices can literally be one tenth that of their ‘rival’ Uhuru, right across the road, combined with an occasional trip out to Aldi or Lidl beyond the ring road. Anyone on a low income knows this. Even I do. Where does the TPS fit into this? Its another stop on the hunt for bargains, mis-priced goods and special offers. Only the stock range is so pitiful that finding a real bargain is something of a miracle.
It didn’t take all that long for this to become apparent. Bargain hunters largely shunned the shop and the boho middle classes did the same for entirely different reasons. Only students who lived really near by and couldn’t be bothered to check out the Asian shops or walk the extra 300m to Tesco, were regulars. And there weren’t enough of them because it didn’t sell booze.
Over time TPS created a customer base of its members. Commit yourself to paying £12 a year membership fee and volunteering to work in the shop for four hours every four weeks and there was a 20% discount on the sale price. Not bad if you had the time and didn’t want to spend those four hours searching the shelves of the wicked Tesco over the road. Fine for the members, but the seeds of disaster for TPS. One supplier who asked to remain anonymous, told me that for example, meat was bought in at say £10 and sold on for £12.50. With err.. a 20% discount to members. You don’t even need to ‘do the math’ to work out that after paying for heat, light, rent, ‘shrinkage’ and staff costs (the manager was paid, rumoured to be a hard to believe £35k pa, even if the staff weren’t) this led to a cracking loss on every item sold.
Talking of ‘shrinkage’…. quite early on the TPS suffered a major theft. The takings from a Friday and the weekend were in the office at the back. On a Monday afternoon they still hadn’t been banked and amounted to some £2,000. They all disappeared. The Police were called and there were tales of the thieves shimmying over a wall at the back. A month or so later the rather more prosaic truth came out. One of the volunteer members had walked into the office, seen the cash and couldn’t resist the temptation. Easy-peasy walking out of the front door with a couple of shopping bags and a cheery wave to fellow volunteers, especially as with nearly 600 member/volunteers, keeping a track on everyone coming in and out of the office on any particular day was a complete nightmare.
By this summer the runes weren’t looking good. The pile of cash was burning ever so quickly. Even the decision to move upmarket and ditch the ‘cheaper than Tesco’ pretence didn’t cut it. The problem was that while the volunteers (and the media) were being told that the whole thing was fine, important bills weren’t getting paid, like business rates, the rent and the HMRC. Neither Oxford City Council, nor landlord, happy. Both asked for payments in advance. Tough, but not totally surprising. Suppliers, right-on co-ops and ethical businesses themselves, started not getting paid instead. They stopped supplying. The customers noticed and the writing was on the wall. By mid-November it was all over and the landlord insisted that they vacate at the end of the month.
The lessons? From my perspective (I never joined – I always thought it was a ‘turkey’ so this is an outsiders perspective) first, huge confusion as to who was the target demographic right at the start – people still remarked on the ‘Bookers frozen foods’ of the first few weeks in the final weeks. Second, an assumption that Tesco was expensive and could be beaten at its own game. Well no, they make a lot of profit and some things are quite expensive, but that doesn’t make it an expensive supermarket. Third, in my view, a pretty elitist view of how people shop. People on low incomes go to lots of shops in search of bargains – and pick up just the bargains from them. Every penny matters. And finally…. when TPS moved upmarket it found itself in competition with the Farmers Market and Uhuru, amongst others. The differences being that both have a much wider range of stock, much better displayed in contexts that aren’t intimidating (several people commented to me that they felt they might get ‘mugged’ between the garish in-shop graffiti and the dexion shelving dispalys). Possibly not cheaper, but that misunderstands that segment of the market, where every penny doesn’t count and the atmosphere and who you might run into and gossip with, are just as important. In the end TPS failed both ends of its potential market and the rest as they say, is history.
One benefit of the work done on my allotment orchard in the summer to relieve flooding problems (see my post of 26 June 2103) was a clearing away of a large part of the very unruly hedge at the back of the plot. Now the space has a new use. Bees. I’ve been approached by a local beekeeper who wants to put four hives on the site. The space carved out by the council digger to lay the land drain is just the right size and the remaining hedge is ideal as a screen, keeping bees away from people.
David and his wife and daughter came up to inspect and discuss practicalities a few days ago. As well as the hives there will be a shed to keep their equipment in. This will include a size-appropriate bee suit for their six year old. Soooo sweet! And for those of you who believe that there is some kind of pre-ordained plan to life, the surname of my beekeeper family? Mead, of course. Nominative determinism rules OK.
A 1,000 litre water container was delivered by Haynes of Challow to the Barracks Lane Community Garden in Cowley recently. All part of the community garden’s practice of promoting sustainability by storing the rain water harvest. Upon inspection it turned out that its original purpose had been the import of honey and that about 35 litres was still left in the bottom. What a find! And what an opportunity.
It didn’t take long to hatch the idea of a mead-making workshop using this unexpected bounty. Fifteen people turned up on 5 October for a day long workshop run by permaculture expert Phil and local beekeeper Garry and those with demi-johns were able to take away some of the resulting liquid. So… cheers to the future rainwater harvest and cheers to the happy accident of so much lovely free honey being put to such an appropriately seasonal use.
What an utterly wonderfully productive autumn its been in the orchard! Apart from figs (see previous post) its been the year for pears and apples. But suffering from a broken right shoulder from my cycle accident in August, harvesting them all has been a bit of a challenge. Step forward Tiddly Pommes – prop Rupert Griffin, who runs this micro company which collects spare apples from gardens, allotments, orchards and hedgerows and juices them. They then sell a range of quirkily-labelled varieties at their outlet at the East Oxford Farmers Market and through Cultivate’s veg van.
So last week Rupert pitched up on my allotment and between us we picked all the ‘James Grieve’ I had – a good apple but so late this year that it was being overtaken by other later-ripening varieties. So rather than leave them on the tree and lose them to birds, Tiddly Pommes will now be selling the juice and I get a 25% cut. Hooray!
You know those recipe books like River Cafe which start with ‘Take 24 ripe fresh figs….’ and you think…. this recipe is pretty straightforward, but where the hell am I going to find 24 fresh ripe figs? For the first in my life I’ve solved the problem easily. Yesterday I picked 26 fresh ripe figs off the tree in my garden.
one productive fig tree
Bringing the total this year to over 150. Such joy! And you know what? I decided to make a figs, buffalo mozzarella and basil recipe which then called for ‘two bunches of fresh basil’. And where might that be? On the allotment of course. And the meal? It looked just like it did in the recipe book. I can’t believe this summer.
They are somewhat off the tourist trail, but Iceland’s network of geothermally-heated greenhouses are an important part of their economy. I got to visit several in the Geysir/Selfoss area about an hour’s drive northeast of Reykjavik in mid July. They rely on the same hot rock system that powers the famous hot water fountains. The produce is impressive, over 90% of the nations cucumbers are produced on the island as are over 75% of the tomatoes and large proportions of peppers, and soft fruit including strawberries as well as cut flowers and bedding plants. The plants are pollinated by bees imported from the Netherlands.
One horticulture business run by Helena Hermundardottir pictured, and her husband and family, Fridheimar, specialises in tomatoes harvesting over 370 tonnes pa. It was established in 1995 and has 5,000 sq m under glass including a visitors centre.
The geothermal energy keeps the greenhouses at a constant 23 deg C and the long hours of daylight are used to advantage by having very thin glass roofs, just 4mm thick. Lighting is more of an issue in winter of course when the hydro-powered electricity kicks in – as indeed it does on cloudy days at other times of the year. All very hi-tech, but energy is both renewable and incredibly cheap in Iceland. Nonetheless viability is threatened by cheap imports from southern Europe, especially in winter as electricity consumption is high.
All the produce is consumed locally, no banana exports from Iceland. Bananas aren’t really a commercial crop . The University of Iceland’s Agriculture department is experimenting with growing them and current annual production is only about 120 ‘bunches’ (3-400 bananas on a ‘bunch’?) but it shows what could be done.
I have been away travelling in the ‘Northlands’, Iceland, Faroes and ferries in between throughout July. Naturally I seemed to gravitate towards the quirkier end of Icelandic culture and while travelling in the Eastfjords came across Iceland’s annual permaculture festival. Running over the weekend of 12-14 July it was centred on the tiny village of Stodvarfjordur, population less than 200. Combined with the village’s annual ‘Polar Festival’ it featured literary, dance and musical events, a graffiti workshop in an abandoned fish processing factory, ‘grass roots film making’, permaculture film screenings and an evenings feasting based around permaculture.
All this included a ‘permaculture stroll’ around the village, a trip up into the mountains to gather herbs for tea, seasoning and soup, a fishing expedition, and a rhubarb competition followed by a ‘rhubarb feast’! Saturday included a kind of farmers market-cum-WI market including a lot of plants for sale, a fishing competition, a ‘cold fresh jump in the ocean’ – I didn’t try that one, all in preparation for the final barbeque, the ‘night feast’ – in broad daylight of course, this is Iceland in July, where the newly-caught fish met the newly-gathered herbs and wild vegetables from the adjacent mountains. These included angelica, thyme, what I took to be wild parsnips, geranium and much else, along with fire-making workshops, small children, much beer consumption and a large camp site with lots of face-painting opportunities. All under a brilliant sun and overlooked by snow-capped mountains on a fjord of stunning clarity and beauty. No photos? Don’t look at mine, take a look at their facebook page. Beautiful, memorable.
The pre-Cowley Road Carnival warm up event to be seen at last night was a gig at ‘The Bully’ (one of Oxford’s leading venues) by fresh-from-Glastonbury Australian band, Formidable Vegetable Sound System. I’m not sure if its the world’s first permaculture rock band – but its certainly the first I’ve come across. The event was a fundraising gig for the Barracks Lane Community Garden. What fun it was. Packed out, the event raised over £600 on a sultry summer evening with a local ukulele band in support and a reggae session before the main act. Hard to describe the mixture of influences but when I went down early to help set up, Charlie the lead described it as ‘..mashing together speakeasy electro-swing style wonk and live ukulele quirk with a side serving of radish beets..’
It was certainly quirky , but the message was spot on with more songs about composting that I could have imagined possible, plus others on permaculture, the end of the fossil fuel culture, waste and recycling (!) and the creative uses of marginal spaces. Funny, relevant, inventive, and not nearly as serious as the subject matter suggests, Formidable Vegetable Sound System apparently were a hit at the Glastonbury Green Field and I can see why as they turned sustainability into an epic dance floor sensation for the 100 plus who turned out to see them. With further stops in Suffolk, London, Bristol and Ireland amongst others in the next few weeks before their ‘world tour’ moves on to Canada and the USA, its worth the effort to check them out.